Old School RuneScape Wiki
This article is about the Mining skill. For information on training Mining, see Mining training (F2P) (P2P).


Mining is a skill that allows players to obtain ores and gems from rocks. With ores, a player can then either smelt bars and make equipment using the Smithing skill or sell them for profit. Mining is one of the most popular skills in RuneScape as many players try to earn a profit from the skill. On the map, mining areas are identified with a regular pickaxe Mining site icon.png icon and the mining shop with a gold pickaxe Mining shop icon.png icon.

Members-only items on this page are written in italics.

Listen to audio.
Mining level-up music (link)
The music that plays when levelled up.

How to mine

A player using a rune pickaxe to mine ores.

To mine, a player will first need a pickaxe, which are sold in a number of shops. New players are given a bronze pickaxe while completing Tutorial Island. When a player has obtained a pickaxe, they next need to find a mine. Upon locating a mine, the player can then select a rock in the mine. Players can identify any mineable ore by right clicking and selecting "Prospect Rocks". Left clicking on it will cause the player to begin mining the rocks as long as they have a pickaxe that the player can use. As a player is mining a rock, they will eventually obtain an ore (or a gemstone). This ore can either be used in the Smithing skill or it can be sold. Selling ores can give players a good profit.

Mining is a skill largely based on a player's luck, which is random in RuneScape. Luck affects Mining in this way: the player will mine the rock, but when they hit the rock, it might take eight to twenty hits to obtain an ore. Another player may mine the same rock and get an ore in just one hit. Using a pickaxe of a higher metal will allow players to obtain ores faster.


Main article: Pickaxe

Pickaxes, or "picks", are needed to mine rocks. They can be equipped as a weapon, giving players one extra space in their inventory. However, pickaxes cannot be made using the Smithing skill. Pickaxes can be bought from either Nurmof in the Dwarven Mine or Tati in Keldagrim, or from other players. Nurmof's Pickaxe Shop in the Dwarven Mine is labelled on the minimap as a gold pickaxe.

A player's Mining level determines the type of pickaxe they can mine with. The higher a level needed to use a pickaxe, the better it is than the ones below it. For example, a rune pickaxe will mine rocks faster than an adamant pickaxe.

Pickaxe Mining icon.png
Grand Exchange
Shop Price

Nurmof's Pickaxe Shop

Bronze pickaxe.png Bronze pickaxe 1 67 1
Iron pickaxe.png Iron pickaxe 24 140
Steel pickaxe.png Steel pickaxe 6 444 500
Black pickaxe.png Black pickaxe 11 2,226 Not sold
Mithril pickaxe.png Mithril pickaxe 21 378 1,300
Adamant pickaxe.png Adamant pickaxe 31 2,406 3,200
Rune pickaxe.png Rune pickaxe 41 18,715 32,000
Dragon pickaxe.png Dragon pickaxe 61 5,614,513 Not sold
3rd age pickaxe.png 3rd age pickaxe 1,412,788,049
Infernal pickaxe.png Infernal pickaxe[1] Not sold
  1. Also requires 85 Smithing to use.

Mineable items

Ores are obtained from the different types of rocks. These rocks can be found in mines. On the minimap, mines are labelled with a grey pickaxe. The colour of a rock corresponds to the ore's colour, so a black rock will yield coal, a blue rock will yield mithril ore, etc.

When players click on a rock, they will hit it with their pickaxe and try to get the ore out. The higher level rocks, such as mithril and adamantite, take longer for players to mine an ore out of them, making the player require patience.

After the ore has been mined, the rock will turn grey for a while. Eventually another ore will respawn and the rock will regain its colour. Players can only mine a rock when ore is available. Ore respawn times differ with the difficulty of the rock. For example, runite rocks take 12 minutes to respawn while iron rocks take about 3 seconds.

Ore Level Experience Grand Exchange price Notes Members
Clay.png Clay 1 5 173 Clay is used in Crafting to make small items such as pots. No
Rune essence.png Rune essence 1 5 11 To mine rune essence, players will need to complete the Rune Mysteries quest. It is used in the Runecrafting skill. Rune essence does not have a respawn time, allowing players to click once on the rock and wait until their inventory is full. No
Copper ore.png Copper 1 17.5 95 Players can use the Smithing skill to smelt a copper ore with a tin ore to make a bronze bar. No
Tin ore.png Tin 1 17.5 95 Players can use the Smithing skill to smelt a copper ore with a tin ore to make a bronze bar. No
Limestone.png Limestone 10 26.5 114 Limestone is needed in the members' quest Regicide. It can be crafted into limestone bricks, which are used in the Construction skill. It is also used to smelt quicklime. Yes
Blurite ore.png Blurite 10 17.5 N/A Blurite ore is needed in the The Knight's Sword quest. It is also a crucial component for smelting blurite bars, used to create blurite crossbows and blurite bolts. No
Iron ore.png Iron 15 35 173 Players can use the Smithing skill to smelt an iron ore to make an iron bar or smelt it with 2 coal to make a steel bar. No
Elemental ore.png Elemental 20 0 N/A Elemental ore can only be mined during and after the Elemental Workshop quests, and is smelted with 4 coal into an elemental metal which is used in making Elemental shields and Elemental helmets. Yes
Daeyalt ore.png Daeyalt 20 17 N/A Daeyalt ore can only be mined from the Meiyerditch Mine during and after the Darkness of Hallowvale quest. Mining 15 ores is required before being released from the mine. It is untradeable. Yes
Silver ore.png Silver 20 40 70 Silver ore is used in the Crafting skill to make items such as tiaras. No
Pure essence.png Pure essence 30 5 2 To mine pure essence, players will need to complete the Rune Mysteries quest. It is used in the Runecrafting skill. Pure essence does not have a respawn time, allowing players to click once on the rock and wait until their inventory is full. Yes
Coal.png Coal 30 50 162 Players can use the Smithing skill to smelt coal with other ores as follows: 2 coal and an iron ore to make a steel bar, 4 coal and a mithril ore to make a mithril bar, 6 coal and an adamantite ore to make an adamantite bar, or 8 coal and a runite ore to make a runite bar. No
Pay-dirt.png Pay-dirt 30 60 N/A Pay-dirt can only be mined in the Motherlode Mine in the southern area of the Dwarven Mine. Can be cleaned using the machine in the center of the mine. Ores received from this machine can range from coal to runite, depending on the player's mining level. Yes
Sandstone (10kg).png Sandstone 35 30, 40, 50, or 60 Available at the quarry south of the Bandit camp in the Kharidian Desert. Used in the Enakhra's Lament quest. Yes
Uncut opal.png Uncut jade.png
Uncut red topaz.png Uncut sapphire.png
Uncut emerald.png Uncut ruby.png
Uncut diamond.png
Gems 40 65 Gem rocks are only available to members who have completed the Shilo Village quest. Gem rocks can also be found randomly during the Tai Bwo Wannai Cleanup minigame. Mining a gem rock gives the player a gem ranging from opal to diamond, which can be used in the Crafting skill. Yes
Gold ore.png Gold 40 65 206 Gold ore is used in the Crafting skill to make items such as jewellery. No
Granite (5kg).png Granite 45 50, 60 or 75 Available at the quarry south of the Bandit camp in the Kharidian Desert. Used in Enakhra's Lament and King's Ransom. Yes
Mithril ore.png Mithril 55 80 165 Players can use the Smithing skill to smelt a mithril ore with four coal to make a mithril bar. No
Lunar ore.png Lunar 60 0 N/A Used during the Lunar Diplomacy quest to make a lunar helm. Yes
Lovakite ore.png Lovakite 65 10 N/A Players can mine this on Zeah. Players can use the Smithing skill to smelt a lovakite ore with two coal via Lovakite furnace to make a lovakite bar. Yes
Adamantite ore.png Adamantite 70 95 1,050 Players can use the Smithing skill to smelt an adamantite ore with six coal to make an adamantite bar. No
Runite ore.png Runite 85 125 11,169 Players can use the Smithing skill to smelt a runite ore with eight coal to make a runite bar. No
Amethyst.png Amethyst 92 240 3,492 Players can use the Crafting and Fletching skill to create ranging ammunition from amethyst. Yes


Main article: Mines

Mines are areas where players can mine their ores. These may be on the surface or underground and are scattered around Gielinor. Some of these locations are accessible only after certain quests are complete and some are members-only.

Random events while mining


When mining players have a 1/256 chance of finding an uncut gem in the rock. A player's chances of finding gems are increased to 1/86 when wearing a charged amulet of glory. There also seems to be a positive correlation between a player's Mining level and the frequency of gems they receive while mining. In other words, the higher levelled the ore, the more likely it is to receive gems while mining it.

Gems that can be found in rocks are uncut sapphires, uncut emeralds, uncut rubies and uncut diamonds.

Rock golem (discontinued)

Main article: Rock golem (monster)

While mining, a rock golem may appear and will begin attacking a player. The combat level of the golem depends on the player's combat level, but it will always be stronger. The rock golem's combat level varies from level 14 to 170. The player can either kill it or run away from it. If a player kills a rock golem, it can drop ores, stouts, pickaxes, uncut gems or nothing.

Exploding rock (discontinued)

Main article: Exploding Rock

When a player mines a rock, smoke or gas bubbles may emerge from it. If a player continues mining this rock as this is happening, the rock will explode, dealing minor damage to the player and destroying the head of their pickaxe. To repair it, for a price, players have to bring it to Nurmof, the dwarf who sells pickaxes in the Dwarven Mine.

Lost pickaxe head (discontinued)

Main article: Pickaxe head

While mining, the head of the player's pickaxe might fly off. The head will land somewhere nearby, usually 3 to 10 squares away. When this happens, the player has to find the pickaxe head quickly before someone else sees it and grabs it - who might attempt to extort it from them. When the player has found the pickaxe head, they can use it with their handle to put the pickaxe back together.


Here are some tips to help a player mine.

Power mining

Also known as drop mining, this is where a player fills their inventory with ores, drops them all, and repeats. While this method of mining allows players to raise their Mining level quickly, dropping a whole inventory of ores can take some time (although this can be minimised by making use of shift-click dropping). Also, by using this method, a player would be missing out on Smithing experience. Some locations useful for drop mining:

To save time while using this method, a player can hire runners who take the ore to their bank as payment for running, saving time for the miner.

Busy world vs. empty world

As of 2014, Old School RuneScape has implemented a static respawn rate. This means that regardless of the population of a server most things will respawn as if there are 2,000 players in the world (ores, trees, etc).

Wielding the pickaxe

Players are recommended to wield their pickaxe. This way, they'll have more inventory space to allow them to carry more ores. To wield pickaxes players must have the appropriate Attack level, as the pickaxe is considered a weapon.

Pickaxe Attack
Bronze pickaxe.png Bronze pickaxe 1
Iron pickaxe.png Iron pickaxe 1
Steel pickaxe.png Steel pickaxe 5
Black pickaxe.png Black pickaxe 10
Mithril pickaxe.png Mithril pickaxe 20
Adamant pickaxe.png Adamant pickaxe 30
Rune pickaxe.png Rune pickaxe 40
Dragon pickaxe.png Dragon pickaxe 60
Infernal pickaxe.png Infernal pickaxe 60
3rd age pickaxe.png 3rd age pickaxe 65

Wear light items

Players are strongly recommended to wear few items or nothing at all other than their pickaxe. Members are advised to wear the boots of lightness, obtained in the Temple of Ikov, so that their weight is lower. Also, wearing the spotted cape or spottier cape from the Hunter skill can be very useful, as well as Penance gloves from the Barbarian Assault minigame. The Graceful outfit is also recommended if you have access to it. ​Wearing fewer items allows a player to run longer. If they are wearing armour, then their weight would be quite large, making them lose a large amount of energy in a short amount of time.

Wilderness mine tips

Having a high-level Defence and wearing stronger armour gives players a much stronger defence against player killers that attempt to try their luck for some ores. Leather/Dragonhide armour also offers fairly good protection against both magic and melee. Players could either only bring their pickaxe to the Wilderness, or bring full leather, a wooden shield or an anti-dragon shield, and an amulet of defence. Fortunately, if a player dies with all these items, they'll keep their pickaxe, the amulet, and the leather body or an ore, depending on what kind it is. A good portion of food is recommended. Saradomin brew may prove essential in life and death situations, as it gives a 25% Defence bonus and a 15% Hitpoints boost.

Switch worlds

For higher level rocks such as adamantite or runite, it is sometimes faster to switch between servers rather than waiting for the rocks to respawn. This is not recommended for any lower level rocks as they respawn much faster.

Temporary boosts

  • Dwarven stout - Drinking this will raise a player's Mining and Smithing levels by 1 for a short time. Dwarven stouts can be bought in Falador one at a time, or members can buy them in Burthorpe in quantities up to 12, at which point the stock is expended and the player must wait for the shop to restock. They are also a common drop from dwarves, and can be bought in several places in members' areas, as well as brewed using the Cooking skill.
  • Mature dwarven stout - Drinking this will raise a player's Mining and Smithing by level 2 for a short time. Players receive two mature dwarven stouts as a reward for completing the Forgettable Tale... quest, but they can also be brewed using the Cooking skill.
  • Dragon pickaxe - Using the special attack will temporarily boost Mining by 3 levels. The special uses up 100% of special energy.
  • Brown Spicy stew - May raise a player's mining by up to +5. Requires partial completion of Recipe for Disaster.

Special mining areas explained

Coal Trucks

The Coal Trucks are located west of Camelot and north of Ardougne. There are 18 coal rocks and handy carts for storing coal in. The carts can store 136 at a time and it is also recommended to take 28 coal when leaving as well. There is a quick way or a slow way to get to and from the coal trucks.

Quick way: With 20 Agility go across the log that is on the east side of the coal trucks. The Camelot Teleport spell can also be used for quick access to the Seers' Village bank

Slow way: Walk all the way around the lake, past the Fishing Guild, to Camelot.

Once in Camelot go northwest from the bank and there are more coal trucks in the shed. Remove all the coal and bank, repeating the process until all the ore has been taken.

Mining Guild

Main article: Mining Guild

There are 37 coal and 5 mithril rocks in the Mining Guild. It is a short walking distance away from a bank. Level 60 Mining is required to enter. There is one especially efficient place to mine, in the southeast corner, where there are 6 coal rocks in very close proximity. Mining mithril is not recommended in the guild unless there is no-one else at the rocks. An anvil is available outside of the guild in the north end of the mines. The anvil, in combination with the Superheat Item spell, allows the player to smith the ores they mine. The smithed items can be turned into coins with the High Level Alchemy spell or sold at the nearby shop avoiding trips to the bank.

Motherlode Mine

Main article: Motherlode Mine

Blast mine

Main article: Blast mine

Quests rewarding Mining experience

Quest Experience
Mining req. Other requirements
Doric's Quest 1,300 - -
Plague City 2,425 - -
The Giant Dwarf 2,500 - 14 Thieving icon.png, 12 Crafting icon.png, 16 Firemaking icon.png, 33 Magic icon.png
Heroes' Quest 2,575 50 Mining icon.png 55 Quest point icon.png, 53 Cooking icon.png, 53 Fishing icon.png, 25 Herblore icon.png
Another Slice of H.A.M. 3,000 - 15 Attack icon.png, 25 Prayer icon.png
The Lost Tribe 3,000 17 Mining icon.png 13 Agility icon.png, 13 Thieving icon.png
Between a Rock... 5,000 40 Mining icon.png 30 Defence icon.png, 50 Smithing icon.png
Enakhra's Lament 7,000 45 Mining icon.png-optional 50 Crafting icon.png, 45 Firemaking icon.png, 43 Prayer icon.png, 39 Magic icon.png
Making Friends with My Arm 10,000 72 Mining icon.png 35 Construction icon.png, 66 Firemaking icon.png, 68 Agility icon.png
The Digsite 15,300 - 10 Agility icon.png, 10 Herblore icon.png, 25 Thieving icon.png
Dragon Slayer II 18,000 68 Mining icon.png 200 Quest point icon.png, 75 Magic icon.png, 70 Smithing icon.png, 62 Crafting icon.png, 60 Agility icon.png, 60 Thieving icon.png, 50 Construction icon.png, 50 Hitpoints icon.png
Total 70,100

Skill choice

Upon completing any of the following quests, players may choose to allocate experience to Mining. These rewards usually come in the form of items, such as lamps or books, and are independent of any experience rewards directly received for completing the quest.

Quest Experience
Skills available Skill requirements
Client of Kourend 500 twice Any -
Fairytale II - Cure a Queen 2,500 Any skill above 30 49 Farming icon.png, 57 Herblore icon.png
A Tail of Two Cats 2,500 twice Any skill above 30 -
The Great Brain Robbery 5,000 Any skill above 30 16 Crafting icon.png, 30 Construction icon.png, 50 Prayer icon.png
King's Ransom 5,000 Any skill above 50 65 Defence icon.png
Darkness of Hallowvale 2,000 three times Any skill above 30 5 Construction icon.png, 20 Mining icon.png, 22 Thieving icon.png, 32 Crafting icon.png, 33 Magic icon.png, 40 Strength icon.png
Curse of the Empty Lord
10,000 Any skill above 50 Some players will need 31 Prayer icon.png
The Tourist Trap 4,650 twice Agility icon.png Fletching icon.png Smithing icon.png Thieving icon.png 10 Fletching icon.png, 20 Smithing icon.png
One Small Favour 10,000 twice Any skill above 30 36 Agility icon.png, 25 Crafting icon.png, 18 Herblore icon.png, 30 Smithing icon.png
Recipe for Disaster
(The final battle)
20,000 Any skill above 50 175 Quest point icon.png, 48 Agility icon.png, 50 Mining icon.png, 53 Fishing icon.png, 53 Thieving icon.png, 25 Herblore icon.png, 59 Magic icon.png, 40 Smithing icon.png, 50 Firemaking icon.png, 40 Ranged icon.png, 40 Crafting icon.png, 10 Fletching icon.png, 10 Slayer icon.png, 36 Woodcutting icon.png
Legends' Quest 7,650 four times Attack icon.png Strength icon.png Defence icon.png Magic icon.png Hitpoints icon.png Prayer icon.png Woodcutting icon.png Crafting icon.png Smithing icon.png Herblore icon.png Agility icon.png Thieving icon.png 107 Quest point icon.png, 50 Agility icon.png, 50 Crafting icon.png, 45 Herblore icon.png, 56 Magic icon.png, 52 Mining icon.png, 42 Prayer icon.png, 50 Smithing icon.png, 50 Strength icon.png, 50 Thieving icon.png, 50 Woodcutting icon.png
Total 114,400